Human body has three sorts of joints viz. fixed joints, cartilaginous joints and synovial joints, to facilitate various limb movements. Knee joint, the one of the most significant joints in human body, is a synovial joint. This Knee Joint assists to carry the body weight during the movementslike, walking, sitting, bending of legs, driving and various other activities performed by a human. Humans mostly make use of knee while having mobility orwhen they need support to stand and sit.

The structure of knee joint has, majorly three bones. They are Femur or the Thigh Bone, Tibia or the prime bone of lower leg and Patella, what is known as Knee-Cap. These all bones are having a cover of cartilage at their ends. Thus a joint is formed, which has a fluid, known as Synovial fluid to lubricate the movements of joint. This lubricant, synovial fluid is held inside the synovial membrane, generally known as joint capsule
During a total knee replacement, a surgeon removes some bone and cartilage from the areas of your thighbone and shin bone, where they meet at your knee joint. The surgeon then replaces the knee area of your thighbone with a metal implant and the knee area of your shinbone with a plastic implant. This gives both bones of your knee joint smooth surfaces again so they can flex and bend more freely and painlessly. In many cases, the surgeon also replaces the undersurface of your kneecap with a plastic coating.
The main purpose of this cartilage is to provide a movement to the bones, which is smooth, having nofriction among them and is without any effort. The synovial fluid provides synovial membrane such wonderful abilities to maintain these kinds of free movements of knee joints. The cartilage is a much like a layered structure of a tissue, which is flexible and it ensures that the surfaces of bones in the joint, slide smoothly, thereby protecting the bone also. However, this cartilage restores itself, while it wears out, but, in a very limiting way.

The common cause of knee-joint pain is the loss of ability of joints to move smoothly. This inability is known as Arthritis. Arthritis malady is normally of several types and most commonly found one is osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis affects majorly on the joints that bear the weight, like hip joint knee joint and spine joints. Osteoarthritis is known as a disease leading to wear and tear of joints, because due to this the cartilage is destroyed, which is available as a lubricant sort layer between the surfaces of bones in the joint. Once this layer of healthy Cartilage mutilates, it loses its lubricating ability to protect the surfaces of joints, which rub against each other and this friction causes pain and in-ability of patient to move.

Arthritis Symptoms

Generally the pain in joints (while movements like sitting, bending are done), a sort of rigidity in the joints, small scope of joint motions and joints gets a deformity in the shape like bow-shape legs or knock knees. Osteoarthritis is more prominent on the joints that bear weight, so the heavy weight and overweight persons are common patients of this. Apart from this Osteoarthritis development is also due to hereditary factor. The excessive use of joints, knee-meniscus injury, tears or ligaments degeneration and bone damage due to fractures in them right through the joints, are some of other factors that are responsible for development of Osteoarthritis.

Treatments of Knee Arthritis

The treatments of arthritis are either conservative like changes in living style, regular medication and physio-therapy or modern like surgery. The knee surgery rests as only cure, when all the conservative treatments are exhausted. For replacing the degenerated surfaces of the knee-joints, to ease the pain, as well as disability suffered by the patient and to rectify the improper alignment of joints of knee, a surgical procedure known as Knee replacement surgery or knee arthroplasty is performed. This procedure can be partial as partial knee replacement or as a total knee replacement surgical procedure.

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